Wednesday, January 6, 2010


                                                              UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
                                                            MA’AJI CALEB ZONKWA.
                                                             FACULTY OF EDUCATION
                                                  UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA
                                                                   NOVEMBER 2002

CONTENTS                                                                                       PAGE

Concept of technical teachers’ training programme {tttp}..3
Concessive approaches by Nigerian government for  teacher’s education........3
8. CONCLUSION……………23
9. REFERENCES……………23
This is an interim measures to provide Nigerian schools with Technical Teachers {Vocational teachers inclusive}. Which started in 1980 in collaboration with the United States of America through which by 1988 about 1540 Technical Teachers were produced. Today, the training is run locally by government in the country Universities and Polytechnics.

Nigerian students, as far back as 1700s – mostly the Mulatto – were sent to London for education stated Ma’aji {1984: 3}.

Onyewuenyi {1987:7} supported Gunther {1954:725} observation that the Europeans who earlier came to West Coast of Africa {Nigeria inclusive} were mainly for , to administer or to exploit {Asiwaju and Crowder 1978: 1-19 and Davidson 1971:280-293} but not to stay, {or to offer anything reasonable solution to the people in solving problems }. Fafunwa {1974 : 196} mentioned that it was the missionary {church} who started the first teachers’ training in 1852: establishing school in Western Nigeria, while in the Eastern part, the provision of informal training through the apprenticeship system for teachers were met :- using homeless boys and children of converted village heads. These Teachers’ training were mainly of Theology and how to serve as an evangelists. Notable in such training institutes were dearth of teachers to teach functional subjects, short of funds and lack of equipments by Easton {1966}.

In the northern province, modern Educational development as presented by Fafunwa {1974:100-120} can safely be summarized as:-“a struggle between restless Christians missionaries assertion of Educational ideals on an established Quranic {Arabic} and Islamic system of Education which had earlier existed in the Northern Emirates”. The by- effect of such struggles was made with outmoded rejection;
Except for Zaria Emirate as we are told Lord Lugard persuaded by diplomatic principles. It was in the middle belt the missionaries found favorable condition. Being accepted by the populace of the area (i.e. plateau,Bauchi,Udei, Jalingo, Makurdi, Southern Zaria, etc). for both education and pastoral activities: as deduced from Mckinney carol Verginia in her dissertation (Bajju of central Nigeria “A case of religion & social change”) in addition with lugard (1926:593) in his Boer report, which Turaki (1982) also study out. Thus, it will be reasonably to draw from their presentations as –

The campaign by the Hausa—Fulani in one hand for  Slaves with compost taxes at a discrete of  UN—Human Condition and colonial administration salvaging of or for Colonies in the other hand-- in accepting Christianity. It is in Kalu (1982) that we saw how the local rivalry of traditional religion could had made other groups to developed interest in Christianity as escape rote to their desperation and moving along a new cultural heritage.

A contrary opinion was presented by Abdulmaliki in his text, “Zuwan Turawa Nigeria Ta Arewa”. It is here we deduced that the Northern Province was introduced to modern Education in the late eighteen centuries in Kano- Nasarawa- on a secular basis of Khartoum principle. This statement is confirmed by Turaki {1993:21-27} . Also informing us of the charter of Britain to the Royal Niger Company in 1886 which was later withdrawn in December 1898 declaring the Niger Territory on British colonial rule. According to interpretation of Abdulmaliki {1978:212}was that Lord Lugard on taking over the administration of the North- in the 1900s- enacted a government policy for teachers education base on Khartoum educational principles.

This policy of Khartoum earlier before 1908 saw Mr. Hans Vischer {popularly called Dan Hausa} who happen also to be the first education officer of the North having a class of indigenous Northern pupils in Kano from the ruling class and some peasants. By 1911 the number of pupils raised to 200 making up of teachers’ education, vocational subjects and administration for the children of the ruling class. The main aims of this Khartoum {-now Sudan} principles were mainly three:-

{1} to form a class of indigenous pupils ; this pupils to be taught how to read and write; the trained pupils to become government workers - Teachers
{2} the indigenous trained pupils to be sent into the suburbs of Northern Region s as teachers to teach others.
{3} out of these pupils, some will eventually be leaders and administrators of education for the Northern Region.

It should be noted as observed by Gunther {1954:231} the principle has no official connection with any government. It was established by one General Gordon, Charles George and developed by one General Sir Horatio Kitcheners between 1889 – 99 who were the Governor –General of Khartoum having Sir Winston Churchill serving as a junior army officer …. In training the governing class, Engineering, Law, Public Administration and agriculture. This principles is supported by Sir Ahmadu Bello {1962:8}as a collaborative example :-

“The British had asked my father to send one son before, but I was too young at the time” to Katsina College which was officially opened in 1922 according to Sir Hugh Clifford the Governor of Nigeria saying it is a training college established for Muhammadan Teachers.

That was around 1910 when Sir Ahmadu Bello was born and his father a heir to the Sokoto Caliphate was serving as a District Head of Rabah in Sokoto emirate.
The Commonwealth development of Education Co-operation {1964: 18-23} shows and explained the dearth of teachers has been a major problem since 1920s in British colonies. By1926, noted Fafunwa that there were 13 Teachers training colleges with a total population of 290 men and 30 women, mostly missionary {church} institutions concentrated in the southern Provinces. These problem of teachers convulse as it was, saw a crash programme launched for their production in 1968. It was to help produce some 2000 graduates and Nigeria certificate in education {N.C.E} Teacher annually for five years stated Fafunwa{1974:201}. However, it has to be noted this University {UNN} pioneered the graduate training of teachers at {Ed}/ B Ed level as stated by Fafunwa. Science subjects were accorded top priority, as this is the area in serious short supply in 1960s; sadly, they are still in short supply today in the 2000s.
Unfortunately, those to provide the sound economical education to the country also to guide the basis of Nigeria economy – that is, the Technical Teachers – were never mentioned. The only clue for us to comprehend the relegation of technical teacher education is found in Fafunwa {1974 :195} as that “Technical Education had a slow start and developed less quickly in comparism with other forms of Education in Nigeria”. Even though today all over the World, Technical education development is the most useful measure of which exceed the advancement of self- reliance of a country’s industries and economy. Amadio {2000}

This type of education has been be-seated with numerous problems as written by Gunthel{1954:725-726}. This was in respect of the Europeans whom Nigerians earlier met. These Europeans as noted by Davidson{1967:205-208} were ruffians and adventurers to the core. Onyewuenyi{1987:7}, wrote of Professor P.O Bodunrin { A former Head of department of philosophy , University of Ibadan}informing us that

“ it cannot be doubted that in the age of adventure, what  the Europeans adventurers explorers or exploiters {However one may regard them} were out to seek were thing peculiar un- Europeans”
It was at the onset of the restless British and French empires on one hand and Germany on the other hand stated Watson {1981}, Peacock{1980} and Easton {1966 }; New foreign policy emerged, keen competition developed which lead to new foreign educational policies and reform in West Africa colonies.

The British society by 1870 according to Breach & Hartwell {1972:23} describing it “as hierarchical, religious and masculine: it was very unequal in its distribution of wealth and firmly stratified socially ; it was ostensibly very religious with some of the great public controversies of the day centering in religion; it was masculine, with women in an inferior social and economic position, married women, for example, not being able to own properties in their own right until 1882. by 1918 society was less hierarchical,  less religious and less masculine. The franchise, the growth of political labour party and the expansion of trade unions to the unskilled, had extended democracy, economically and politically;… educational opportunities had widened, although secondary education was still denied to all; but a small proportion of working classes….”

Before 1902 the British Monarch had exerted considerable political influence both at home and its colonies and that was the end of its imperialism. Turaki {1993:28} also supports this in his book, An introduction to the history of SIM/ECWA in Nigeria 1893-1993 all these shows that Technical Trainning is put on ground
 to train Nigerians to manipulate and produce machinery purely for the imperial economical endeavour, therefore, the Technical Education Ma’aji {1984} noted , presumed and promoted conformity; Education which had little to do with equipping pupils to lead a fuller live but conformist on a narrow sense. Even Hilliard [1956:141} informed us that if school were established for Technical Education
“…it was that of fitting students to receive training which will enable them feel responsible post in different government department but not to serve in the supply of trained , authentic manpower{Human resources} to develop the economy.”

The development of Technical Education mentioned in Okorie{2001:9-10} Fafunwa {1974:175-179} as indicated by Kirk-Greene{1968} which Hilliard {1956}informed us in simple term as pointed by Gunther {1954} the time in the year 1944/45 a Ten- year development plan by the British Government was launched for Nigeria ; this saw a foundation of three Technical institution in Kaduna, Enugu and Lagos being established in 1948. The 50’s saw more governmental concerted efforts. This lead to the establishment of more trade centers, craft{Commonwealth Rebate For Full- Time Training}schools ,Technical schools without adequate teachers. By 1958 according to the Nigeria yearbook, {1960:119} Technical and Vocational students formed a minute 0.0023% of the total students in the federation. While technical and vocational schools stood at 0.0021% of the total schools of the federation.

On closer observation of the Federal Ministry of Education statistics in 1988 the technical and vocational students rose from 0.0023% in 1958 to 0.0034% in 1988 making a 50% rise in the Federation. In the other hand, the primary pupils rose to 621% and secondary school students rose to 422% from 1958 to 1988. A 30 year development of which this 50% are expected according to Nigeria Constitution {1978} to be the bed-rock for the country “…independent industrial capability .

By 1984/85, Federal government disturbed with the low level of indigenous competence industrial workers , scholars and students; considering the recommendations forwarded by the 1969 National Curriculum Conference Fafunwa {1774:22} with that of the {National Policy of Education 1973;1981 } “ philosophy and goals of education” which the 1978 Nigeria Constitution CHAPTER II , Item 12, spelt out in sub-section ‘3’ “…to enable Nigeria to develop its own independent industrial capability” directs .

The Federal Government entered into soft loan arrangement with countries like Bulgaria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia for the production and supply of pre-vocational {industrial} workshops tools and equipments. This to address fundamental issues of technical and vocational education at junior secondary and selected senior secondary schools in the country. The supplies to the states and schools have been made. The installation of these equipments at various degree of success has been accomplished.

Even though the National Policy of Education {1973 & 1981} emphasize functional education for all citizens of Nigeria at all level. The necessary equipment of which all Nigerians were involved by the Federal Government for it to acquire the loan and to achieve the mentioned goals in the 1978 constitution (to lay a solid foundation ):These toward proper development of Technical Education are not there anymore. This is because of the indiscipline perpetuated in schools today by some principals, Technical Teachers and security men- even with some officials of various ministry of education Headquarters { is that of mis- appropriation of these equipments purchase and supplied to schools in 1983-throughout the country} is disastrous . More –so most of these equipment were left on installed for lack of space designated for work shop in some school. In fact most disappeared into oblivion and today we are back to where we started. The Nigeria poor peasants are servicing these loans and the children are not receiving the functional education (Technical and Vocational)

These are upshot of Advance Teachers- Training colleges (A.T.T.Cs) which came into existence as a collaborated effort by UNESCO and the British Government to reduce the dearth of teachers in lower form of secondary schools in Nigeria (in 1962-3) observed of by the Federal Government, today in Nigeria it is the minimum standard to become a Teacher at the primary level. The collaborated effort saw the supply of teachers for an emergency scheme with a view of producing well –qualified, non-graduate teachers as stated by Fafunwa (1974:201) and the British information service (1964:26-29).

The main objectives of the colleges were:-
a. Assists the nation achieve its educational objectives through the preparation of teachers…….
b. Provide course of study, training and research ----for the preparation of teachers –for the award of Nigeria certificate in education (N.C.E)
c. Offer internal and external courses of short duration to serving teachers.
d. Promotion through teaching, research and other means the advancement of knowledge ---for the benefit of the community at large.[Source – extracted and coined out from the National policy of education {1973 section 9 and 1998:33-34} and Annual volume of the laws of Kaduna state of Nigeria (1978:A66) ]

Having a closer look on these objectives one will conclude that they are low level achievement intends and utterly to narrow for any meaningful training for technical teachers where accuracy and a long standing discipline should be bases of deeper concepts. More –so, only in Nigeria and Uganda that run such institution at a very lower level (Edem 1987).

Jean Jacques Rousseva’s (1712-78)a philosopher, in his critiques of all education he realizes that the best education that can be given to any citizen is technical education (on a trade). He simply present his argument base on an imaginary son of his for people to stratify appropriately as:-
“Emile to learn a trade that with any change of fortune he might be independent economically, for its social value in recognizing the dignity of labor, in helping him to over come the prejudices which other wise he would acquire, and to aid generally in training the mind.”

On this many writers and scholars {with country’s National Constitutions} presented many texts, propounded arguments (different of opinions) to what technical education ought to be or should be set to be ideally. summarily presented during Festac 1977 by Professor L.H Ofusu Appiah {Director Encyclopedia Africana Project, Accra Ghana} on 19th January 1977 as :-

“…if we make the effort to learn from history we will be forced to relieve it, and we may even improve the
intellectual state…in the coming decades and built an intellectual community whose characteristics feature may be meaningful co-operation devoid of jalousies and rancor”

Rusk (1974:241) informed us that Alfred North Whitehead like John Dewey rejected utterly a narrow Technical Education which prepared a man merely to fit into society in which he lived. Infact this seems to fit well the semantic paradoxes of colleges of education in Nigeria of which Rusk further explained and gave us reason to reject such as a narrow training as :-“ … if in the troubled time which may be before us, you wish appreciably to increase the chance of some savage upheaval, introduce wide spread technical education and ignore the Benedictine ideal. Society will then get what it deserve”.

Benedictine ideal lies in aristocratic lineage, Smart (1970:550-551) it was an asceticism which was optional, and which was geared to orthodoxy without imposing uniformity as most of the colleges of education were affiliated to the universities nearest them as moderators and external examiners. Some of these colleges of education earlier existed in principles while some were well equipped. Thanks to the establishment of the national commission of colleges of education (NCCE) in reducing these menace of the Benedictine ideals. However it is yet to address on concrete term the sound training of Technical Teachers at a non-graduate level. A Technical Teachers ideally is an :-
1. Authority on his trade, Olaitan {1999:3-4; 63-66}
2. He must have or earning a living from his trade
3. He must have received his training from a well established institute or organization Okorie(2001). Olaitan {1999}
This is sufficient for any balance member of the society for technical education to propound reasons why TTTP should be run locally in the Universities and polytechnics to stop the narrow sense of training overseas. It seems to me based on experience the overseas training is even worst than that provided in our local Colleges of Education. Since every bit of the training is stream with conformist principles.


If Technical Teachers Training Programme (TTTP) was earlier an interim measures: weighting the out put of these overseas products with that of the locally trained Technical Teachers. Thus, we can conclude that, those educators who must have sat and advice for the training to be done locally in Nigeria have done a lot of homework and had a better foresight. For it is being observed the Technical Training overseas have done a good job for training conformist, in a narrow sense. While Nigerians required Technical Teachers with wider knowledge and training to man our classrooms and schools {in Technical Vocational Education}, Olaitan {1999:8-11}

There fore taking this training to colleges of education as explained in the texts; what comes immediately to mind is that, how can government attract those graduate with a sound training in there profession?
(1). they have earned a living on it and
(2). Understand the intrinsic of there profession not the surface aspect of it. (3) Are these students to be, teach the lecturers of colleges of education on and about their trades? Or

(4) are they to offer solution to our country Technical problems in the University as enshrine in the National Policy of Education?
In exchange they are taught sound methodology of presenting their knowledge in the class room/ workshops in our school systems (to teach, guide and counsel).

The question is how can a pupil from a secondary school trained, taught without those ethical material required of his schooling in Technical Vocational Education as mentioned in the text. To be put together with a graduate (B Engr/ HND/ B.Sc (Engr), ND, C&G finals} going to the same Colleges of Education to be taught a trade and methodology for teaching in our school system be effective? -The graduates as an Engineer or Technologist had worked in different organizations perhaps reach management level for offering solutions and the other does not know his left or RIGHT.


From the discussion and presentation above the relevance of moving the Technical Teachers Training Programme ( TTTP) from the Universities and Polytechnics to Colleges of Education should be handled with caution. For in the near future as we have deduced in the text; it seems we will return to the 1940’s position of none authentic Technical Teachers. In effect, Nigerians will be enslaved to external Technology.


Abdul Maliki, M. {1978} “Zuwa Turawa Nigeria Ta Arewa” Zaria: Northern Nigeria publishing company. Passim.

Ahmadu Bello, SOS {1962} “ My Life”. London Cambridge University Press. Passim.

Amadio M. (2000) Edith. “World Data on Education”. GENEVA, UNESCO. Passim

Asiwaju, A.I and Crowder M. Editors {1978} “ Tarikh, The African Diaspora Hong Kong: Wing King Tong co. Ltd. PP1-19

Breach, R.W& Hartwell, R.M. (1972) “ British Economy and Society 1870—1970” London: oxford University Press PP69—71

British . information service (1964) “British Education in the common wealth”

Davidson. al. (1967) “The growth of Africa civilization” A history of West  Africa 1000—1800’ Long man Group Ltd . Passim.

Easton . S.C(1966) “Western Heritage (from the earliest time to the present )”.Holt Rinehart Winston. Passim.

Edem,D.A. (1987) “Introduction to Educational Administration in Nigeria” Ibadan: Adeyemi Press Ltd, Passim.

Fanfuwa. B,A.(1974) “History of Education in Nigeria” London. George Allen and unwin.Passim.

Gunther J. (1954) “Inside Africa” (N.P) Passim.

Hilliard, F.H (1954) “A short History of Education in British West Africa” Thomas Nelson &son Ltd. Passim

Iwara, A.U &Mveng, E {Editors} {1977} “Colloquium on black civilization and education” Second World Black and African Festivals of Arts and Culture; Proceedings vol. 1, Lagos FMGN PP 28-33.

Kaduna states Laws 1978

Kalu, O. Editor (1978) “ Christianity in Northern Nigeria” In Christianity  In West Africa, The Nigeria story by Crampton E.P.T, Ibadan: Day star Press(Nig.) Ltd. Passim

Kirk-Greene, A.H.M.(1968) “ Lugard and the Amalgamation of Nigeria: A  Documentary Record.” London. Frank CASS and company Ltd. Passim.

Kofi, A.O. (1978) “The West Africa Traditional Religion” Awka, Kuceana, Damian (Nig.) Lttd. Passim

Lugard, F.D. (1926) “ The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa” Endinburgh William Blackwood and Sons Ltd. Passim

Ma’aji C.Z.(1984) “ Demonstration as a Teaching Technique” Kaduna state  Ministry of Education. Acc N0 33 class 370.7 unpublished paper.

Mckinney, C.V. (1985) “ Bajju of Central Nigeria” A case study of Religion and Social Change. Phd Dissertation. Dedman, Southern Methodist University Passim.

National Policy of Education (NPE) 1998 ;1981 & 1973.

Nigeria Constitution 1978 CHAPTER II

Okorie J.U. (2001) “Vocational Industrial Education” Bauchi; League of Researchers in Nigeria. Passim.

Olaitan, al {1999} “curriculum development and management in”. Vocational Technical Education Onitsha: Cape Publishers International Ltd. Passim

Onyewuenyi, Innocent C.(1987) “Africa Origin of Greek philosophy” . Nsukka. Department of philosophy, University of Nigeria.

Peacock, H, L. (1980) 6th Edition “ History of Modern Europe 1789-1978” London. Heinemann Education Books; Passim.

Rusk. Robert R. (1970) “Doctrine of the Great Educators” Thetford,  Macmillan Press Ltd. Passim

Smart Ninian (1984) “ The Religious Experience of Mankind” Glasgow. Williams Collins Son & Ltd. Passim.

Turaki, Y.(1982) “ The Institutionalization of inferior status and socio—political Role  Of the Non—Muslims Groups in the colonial Hierarchical structure of the

Northern Region of Nigeria”A social—Ethical Analysis of the colonial Legacy. Phd Dissertation, Boston University.

Turaki, Y.(1993) “ An introductory to the history of SIM/ECWA in Nigeria 1893-1993Jos. Challenge press. Passim.

Watson, J.B. (1981} “Twentieth century World Affairs”: John Murray
(publishers)Ltd. Passim.

Tuesday, January 5, 2010

Teachers are the key to social mobility and development

Without good teachers, Schools/Universities are doomed to fail.                   Yet politicians in Nigeria seem determined to destroy the standards of the profession to international standard.
Instead of politicians tying themselves in knots about social mobility, they should endeavors on the single most important "agent" for them the politicians doing well in life, the teacher. Children are doomed to fail without enough academically able and professionally competent teachers. Yet politicians and bureaucrats seem to conspire against success when it comes to funding of educational institutions and remuneration for teachers (the university Lecturer inclusive) oat to have. That is one of the key messages deducted from private research, participated and facilitated on Teachers study.
Meanwhile, thanks to the interference of officialdom like NUT/ASUU, teaching is barely a profession: the teacher must follow the strategies, frameworks and tasks devised by semi-educated officials for careerist politicians. The salary scale rewards managerial skills, not excellent teaching. The upshot is that the able avoid the profession or flee it. The entry standards are questionable and poorly appropriated for meeting the challenge of life-thanks to the university commission who is now putting the teacher curriculum on a sound footing; this to reduce mediocrity/attrition rates; our profession (Education) is the most over-managed, demoralized and unhappy.
To help matter, it is better to raise entry standards for all teachers, primary and secondary. Nigeria should require all primary teacher candidates to have high-grades in the subjects of the primary curriculum; and instead of taking an education degree, they should follow a subject course to degree level in some of the subjects they will teach at school (as happens in other countries). This would allow and developed a competent specialist as well as generalist primary teachers to see that their pupils had sufficient foundation before moving on to secondary school. At that stage, the expectation should be for teachers to have taken the subjects they teach to degree level. Meanwhile training, as distinct to subject mastery, should take place in the schools, or in specially designated university practice schools, under the guidance of experienced teachers and training funds devolved so that schools can choose the training model best suited to their needs.

Teachers would be the winners, if only harder entry, which is more competitive, would help restore a sense of pride to the profession. In addition, the benefit to pupils would be immense.

Monday, January 4, 2010


This study was conducted to identify strategies for effective evaluation of student’s practical skills in technical education subjects through process and product techniques in Kaduna State.
Process and product techniques are the two basic methods of evaluating the practical skills possessed by students in science and technology education.
The purpose of the study included to identify methods of evaluation most frequently adopted by teachers in assessing students practical skills.
In effect it sought to determine which of the two methods (process or product) are most effective in evaluating students practical skills.
Questionnaire was the instrument used in collecting data from the respondents.
The population for the study comprised all teachers teaching practical subjects in all secondary and post secondary institutions in Kaduna State.
There was no sampling employed for this particular study due to the small size of respondents from the two Local Government Areas chosen for the pilot study (i e. Jema’a and Zangon Kataf) in Kaduna State.
The data were analyzed through the use of means, percentages and analyses of variance (ANOVA). The study finding reveled that there is an urgent need for Kaduna State Ministry of Education to have in –house, seminar, workshop and conference for the up-grading of technical teachers’ practices in the evaluation of practical subjects.
The study also revealed that a combination of process and product evaluation techniques is the most effective method of evaluating students skills in practical subjects. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the assessment of practical subjects should be through a combination of process and product evaluation methods.


Closure of Tertiary Institution:Most laurels of education endeavour especially in our case Nigeria, Professor Wole Soyinka and others suggested the closure of our tertiary institution for restructuring of which is seems acceptable to me. This is because of the fallacy of the educational policy being made un-relevant by some educational actors called institutional administrator....
The above objective being achieved the government should turn attention for retraining of the civil service to meet the present challenges for accelerated national development. This can be achieved if the civil service is divided in to groups and these groups be trained by the rejuvenated University and polytechnic lasting three months....
There is no question, that expectation from curriculum and standards has dropped over the past years and evidence of decline in tertiary educational achievement in recent decade is beyond question....
Familiarity with digital keyboard and electronic operations; understanding how to follow programme commands; recognizing when a system is following or deviating from a programme; knowledge of a basic computer language and the special vocabulary referring to hardware, software etc should be encourage in our tertiary system. This will be the whole gain for closing and restructuring our tertiary education. FULL TEXT VISIT: